Anatomic Pathology: Infectious Disease Pathology

• The most common manifestation of primary herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is gingivostomatitis, which is characterized by painful vesicular lesions of the oral mucosa. By comparison, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and encephalitis are rare.

• Herpetic hepatitis occurs only in reactivation disseminated disease, not as a primary manifestation.

• HSV-1 and HSV-2 are members of the Herpesviridae family, which are enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses.

• About one third of individuals exposed to HSV develop latent infection in nerve cell ganglia proximal to the primary site of infection with orofacial (HSV-1) disease involving the trigeminal ganglia and genital (HSV-2) infections affecting the sacral nerve root ganglia.

• Both primary and secondary HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections can cause intrauterine or neonatal disease, often associated with cutaneous, ocular, and neurologic manifestations.

Ustacelebi S: Diagnosis of herpes simplex virus infection. J Clin Virol 2001;21(3):255-259.

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